An annotated checklist of the mammals of Paraguay

Noé U. De La Sancha, Celia López-González, Guillermo D’Elía, Philip Myers, Lourdes Valdez, María Luisa Ortiz

Resumen


As the center of convergence of some of the major bioregions of South America, Paraguay is a biodiverse country of biogeographic importance. Yet despite a long history of natural history research, basic knowledge of its fauna, including mammals, is still lacking.  The last updated list of Paraguayan mammals was published in 2002, but increased research efforts since that time have brought about numerous changes in the taxonomy and known distribution of many species.  We present an updated and annotated checklist on the mammals of Paraguay through 2016.  Only species records based on the assessment of some type of verifiable voucher are included here.  Because the Paraguay River has been considered a significant biogeographic boundary, the distribution of each species (east of the river, west of the river, present on both sides) is tabulated as well.  We recorded 181 native species of mammals, 30 more than in 2002, belonging to 10 orders, 33 families, and 116 genera.  Chiroptera (58) was the most diverse order, followed by Rodentia (56), Carnivora (20) and Didelphimorphia (18).  Ctenomys pilarensis, C. paraguayensis y C. dorsalis are known only from Paraguay.  The inventory is likely incomplete, as well as our knowledge of species distributional limits. Continued collecting of tissues and vouchers, as well as an examination of museum specimens, is necessary to address numerous unsolved questions concerning distribution, taxonomy, ecology, biogeography, population biology and the effects of anthropogenic modification.

Texto completo:

PDF (English) HTML (English)

Referencias


Agnarsson, I., and L. J. May–Collado. 2008. The phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla: the importance of dense taxon sampling, missing data, and the remarkable promise of cytochrome b to provide reliable species–level phylogenies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48:964–985.

Andelman, S. J., and M. R. Willig. 2002. Alternative conservation reserve configurations for Paraguayan bats: Considerations of spatial scale. Conservation Biology 16:1352–1363.

Arístide, L., I. M. Soto, M. D. Mudry, and M. Nieves. 2014. Intra and interspecific variation in cranial morphology on the southernmost distributed Cebus (Platyrrhini, Primates) species. Journal of Mammalian Evolution 21:349–355.

Azara, F. de. 1801. Essais sur l’histoire naturelle des quadrupédes de la province du Paraguay. Charles Pougens. Paris, France.

Azara, F. de. 1802. Apuntamientos para la historia natural de los quadrúpedos del Paraguay y Río de la Plata. Imprenta de la Viuda de Ibarra. Madrid, Spain.

Barquez, R. M. 2006. Orden Chiroptera. Pp. 56–86 in Mamíferos de Argentina sistemática y distribución (Barquez, R. M., M. M. Díaz, and R. A. Ojeda, eds.). Asociación Argentina para el Estudio de los Mamíferos. Tucumán, Argentina.

Bartrina, L. 2007. Contexto geográfico general. Pp. 25–32 in Biodiversidad del Paraguay: Una aproximación a sus realidades (Salas–Dueñas, D. A., and J. F. Facetti, eds.). Fundación Moisés Bertoni. Asunción, Paraguay.

Beisiegel, B. M., and G. L. Zuercher. 2005. Speothos venaticus. Mammalian Species 783:1–6.

Benirschke, K., A. T. Kumamoto, and D. A. Meritt. 1985. Chromosomes of the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi). Journal of Heredity 76:95–98.

Benirschke, K., R. J. Low, and M. Byrd. 1989a. Further observations on the causes of death in the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus wagneri. Verhandlungsbericht des Internationalen Symposiums über die Erkrankungen der Zoo- und Wildtiere 31:7 1-78.

Benirschke, K., M. L. Byrd, and R. J. Lowe. 1989b. The Chaco region of Paraguay: peccaries and Mennonites. Interdisciplinary Science Reviews 14:144–147.

Berta, A. 1982. Cerdocyon thous. Mammalian Species 186:1–4.

Bertoni, A. W. 1939. Catálogos sistemáticos de los vertebrados del Paraguay. Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay 4:1–49.

Bidau, C. J. 2015. Family Ctenomyidae Lesson, 1842. Pp. 818–877 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Bonvicino, C. R., and M. Weksler. 2015. Genus Nectomys Peters, 1861. Pp. 369–376 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Bonvicino, C. R., A. N. Menezes, A. Lazar, V. Penna–Firme, C. Bueno, M. C. Viana, P. S. D’Andrea, and A. Langguth. 2015. Chromosomes and phylogeography of Sylvilagus (Mammalia, Leporidae) from Eastern Brazil. Oecologia Australis 19:158–172.

Bornholdt, R., K. Helgen, K. P. Koepfli, L. Oliveira, M. Lucherini, and E. Eizirik. 2013. Taxonomic revision of the genus Galictis (Carnivora: Mustelidae): species delimitation, morphological diagnosis, and refined mapping of geographical distribution. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 167:449–472.

Boyle, S. A. 2014. Pitheciids in fragmented habitats: Land cover change and its implications for conservation. American Journal of Primatology 78:534–549.

Braun, J. K. 2015. Genus Andalgalomys D. F. Williams and Mares, 1978. Pp. 469–471 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Braun, J. K., and J. L. Patton. 2015. Genus Graomys Thomas, 1916. Pp. 523–531 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Brooks, D. M. 1992. Reproductive behaviour and development of the young of the chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri Rusconi, 1930), in the Paraguayan Chaco. Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 57:316–317.

Brooks, D. M., R. E. Bodmer, and S. Matola (eds.). 1997. Tapirs – Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group. IUCN. Gland, Switzerland.

Byrd, M. L., K. B. Benirschke, and G. C. Gould. 1988. Establishment of the first captive colony of the Chaco peccary, Catagonus wagneri. Zoologische Garten 58:265–274.

Byrne, H., A. B. Rylands, J. C. Carneiro, J. W. Lynch Alfaro, F. Bertuol, M. N. F. da Silva, M. Messias, C. P. Groves, R. A. Mittermeier, I. Farias, T. Hrbek, H. Schneider, I. Sampaio, and J. P. Boubli. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships of the New World titi monkeys (Callicebus): first appraisal of taxonomy based on molecular evidence. Frontiers in Zoology 13:1–25.

Campos, J. M., D. A. Meritt, and I. Benitez. 2004. On the occurrence of the owl monkey (Aotus azarae) in Cerro León, Chaco, Paraguay. Neotropical Primates 12:63–64.

Carleton, M. D., and G. G. Musser. 2005. Order Rodentia. Pp. 745–752 in Mammal Species of the World, third Edition (Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds.). The Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Cartes, J. L., J. Thompson, and A. Yanosky. 2015. El Chaco Paraguayo como uno de los últimos refugios para los mamíferos amenazados del Cono Sur. Paraquaria Natural 3:37–47.

Casado, F., C. R. Bonvicino, C. Nagle, B. Comas, T. D. Manzur, M. M. Lahoz, and H. N. Seuánez. 2010. Mitochondrial divergence between 2 populations of the hooded capuchin, Cebus (Sapajus) cay (Platyrrhini, Primates). Journal of Heredity 101:261–269.

Cerqueira, R., and C. J. Tribe. 2008. Genus Didelphis Illiger, 1811. Pp. 17–25 in Mammals of South America Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Chemisquy, M., and D. Flores. 2012. Taxonomy of the southernmost populations of Philander (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae), with implications for the systematics of the genus. Zootaxa 3481:60–72.

Chu, Y. K., R. D. Owen, L. M. González, and C. B. Jonsson. 2003. The complex ecology of hantavirus in Paraguay. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69:263–268.

Chu, Y. K., B. Milligan, R. D. Owen, D. G. Goodin, and C. B. Jonsson. 2006. Phylogenetic and geographical relationships of hantavirus strains in eastern and western Paraguay. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 75:1127–1134.

Chu, Y. K., D. G. Goodin, R. D. Owen, D. Koch, and C. B. Jonsson. 2009. Sympatry of two Hantavirus strains, Paraguay, 2003–2007. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15:1977–1980.

Contreras, J. R. 1993. Una nueva especie de roedor excavador del género Ctenomys procedente del Paraguay Oriental (Rodentia, Octodontinae, Ctenomyinae), descripción preliminar. Resúmenes VI Congreso Iberoamericano de Conservación y Zoología de Vertebrados (Santa Cruz, Bolivia) 44–46.

Contreras, J. R. 2000. Ctenomys paraguayensis, una nueva especie de roedor excavador procedente del Paraguay Oriental (Mammalia, Rodentia, Ctenomyidae). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales, nueva serie 2:61–68.

Culver, M., W. E. Johnson, J. Pecon–Slattery, and S. J. O’brien. 2000. Genomic ancestry of the American puma (Puma concolor). Journal of Heredity 91:186–197.

D’Elía, G., and U. F. J. Pardiñas. 2004. Systematics of Argentinean, Paraguayan, and Uruguayan swamp rats of the genus Scapteromys (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae). Journal of Mammalogy 85:897–910.

D’Elía, G., and P. Myers. 2014. On Paraguayan Thrichomys (Hystricognathi: Echimyidae): the distinctiveness of Thrichomys fosteri Thomas, 1903. Therya 51:153–166.

D’Elía, G., I. Mora, P. Myers, and R. D. Owen. 2008a. New and noteworthy records of Rodentia (Erethizontidae, Sciuridae, and Cricetidae) from Paraguay. Zootaxa 1784:39–57.

D’Elía, G., U. F. J. Pardiñas, J. P. Jayat, and J. Salazar–Bravo. 2008b. Systematics of Necromys (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae): Species limits and groups, with comments on historical biogeography. Journal of Mammalogy 89:778–790.

D’Elía, G., J. D. Hanson, M. R. Mauldin, P. Teta, and U. F. J. Pardiñas. 2015. Molecular systematics of South American marsh rats of the Genus Holochilus (Muroidea, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae). Journal of Mammalogy 96:1081–1094.

Davis, W. B., and A. L. Gardner. 2008. Genus Eptesicus. Pp. 440–450 in Mammals of South America Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

de Angelo, C., A. Paviolo, and M. Di Bitetti. 2011a. Differential impact of landscape transformation on pumas (Puma concolor) and jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest. Diversity and Distributions 17:422–436.

de Angelo, C., A. Paviolo, D. Rode, L. Cullen. 2011b. Participatory networks for large–scale monitoring of large carnivores: pumas and jaguars of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest. Oryx 45:534–545.

de la Sancha, N. U. 2014. Patterns of small mammal diversity in fragments of subtropical interior Atlantic Forest in eastern Paraguay. Mammalia 78:437–449.

de la Sancha, N. U., and G. D’Elía. 2015. Additions to the Paraguayan mammal fauna: the first records of two marsupials (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) with comments on the alpha taxonomy of Cryptonanus and Philander. Mammalia 79:343–356.

de la Sancha, N. U., S. Solari, and R. D. Owen. 2007. First records of Monodelphis kunsi Pine (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) from Paraguay, with an evaluation of its distribution. Mastozoologia Neotropical 14:241–247.

de la Sancha, N. U., G. D’Elía, F. Netto, P. Perez, and J. Salazar–bravo. 2009. Discovery of Juliomys (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) in Paraguay, a new genus of Sigmodontinae for the country’s Atlantic Forest. Mammalia 73:162–167.

de la Sancha, N. U., G. D’Elía, C. J. Tribe, P. E. Pérez, L. Valdez, and R. H. Pine. 2011. Rhipidomys (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Paraguay: noteworthy new records and identity of the Paraguayan species. Mammalia 75:269–276.

de la Sancha, N. U., G. D’Elía, and P. Teta. 2012. Systematics of the subgenus of mouse opossums Marmosa (Micoureus) (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) with noteworthy records from Paraguay. Mammalian Biology–Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 77:229–236.

de la Sancha, N. U., C. L. Higgins, S. J. Presley, and R. E. Strauss. 2014. Metacommunity structure in a highly fragmented forest: has deforestation in the Atlantic Forest altered historic biogeographic patterns? Diversity and Distributions 20:1058–1070.

de Oliveira, J. A., and P. R. Gonçalves. 2015. Genus Oxymycterus Waterhouse, 1837. Pp. 247–268 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

de Oliveira, T. G. 1998. Herpailurus yaguaroundi. Mammalian Species 578:1–6.

de Vivo, M., and A. P. Carmignotto. 2015. Family Sciuridae G. Fischer, 1817. Pp. 1–48 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Díaz, L. A., M. P. Díaz, W. R. Almirón, and M. S. Contigiani. 2007. Infection by UNA virus (Alphavirus; Togaviridae) and risk factor analysis in black howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) from Paraguay and Argentina. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101:1039–1041.

Dick, C. W., and D. D. Gettinger. 2005. A faunal survey of Streblid flies (Diptera: Streblidae) associated with bats in Paraguay. Journal of Parasitology 91:1015–1024.

do Nascimento, F. 2014. On the morphological variation and taxonomy of the Geoffroy’s cat Leopardus geoffroyi (d’Orbigny& Gervais, 1844) (Carnivora, Felidae). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo 54:129–160.

do Nascimento, F., and P. dos Santos Pompeu, and M. Passamani. 2016. Range extension of the pantanal cat Leopardus braccatus (Carnivora, Felidae) in a Cerrado-Caatinga-Atlantic Forest ecotone, Brazil. Mastozoología Neotropical, 23:171–177.

Dunnum, J. L. 2015. Family Caviidae G. Fischer, 1817. Pp. 690–726 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Dunnum, J. L. And J. Salazar–Bravo. 2010. Phylogeny, evolution, and systematics of the Galea musteloides complex (Rodentia: Caviidae). Journal of Mammalogy 91:243–259.

Durette–Dusset, M. C., and C. Vaucher. 1999. Molostrongylus mbopi n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongylina, Molinewidea) parasite of three Molossops species (Chiroptera, Molossidae) from Paraguay. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 106:407–418.

Dutra, R. P., D. M. Casali, R. V. Missagia, G. M. Gasparini, F. A. Perini, and M. A. Cozzuol. 2016. Phylogenetic Systematics of Peccaries (Tayassuidae: Artiodactyla) and a Classification of South American Tayassuids. Journal of Mammalian Evolution DOI 10.1007/s10914–016–9347–8.

Eger, J. L. 2008. Family Molossidae. Pp. 399–439 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Emmons, L. H., J. L. Patton, and Y. L. R. Leite. 2015. Subfamily Dactylomyinae Tate, 1935. Pp. 880–888 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Fariña, T. 1973. The climate of Paraguay. Pp. 33–38 in Paraguay: Ecological Essays (Gorham, J. R., ed.). Academy of Arts and Sciences of the Americas. Miami, U. S. A.

Feijó, A., and A. Langguth. 2013. Mamíferos de médio e grande porte do Nordeste do Brasil: Distribuição e taxonomia, com descrição de novas espécies. Revista Nordestina de Biologia 22:3–225.

Frutos, S. D., and R. A. van den Bussche. 2002. Genetic diversity and gene flow in nine–banded armadillos in Paraguay. Journal of Mammalogy 83:815–823.

Gamarra de Fox, I., and A. Martin. 1996. Mastozoología. Pp. 469–573 in Colecciones de flora y fauna del Museo de Historia Natural del Paraguay (Romero Martínez, O., ed.). Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay, Dirección de Parques Nacionales y Vida Silvestre, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Asunción, Paraguay.

 Garbino, G. S. T. and A. Tejedor. 2013. Natalus macrourus (Gervais, 1856) (Chiroptera: Natalidae) is a senior synonym of Natalus espiritosantensis (Ruschi, 1951). Mammalia 77: 237–240.

Gardner, A. L. (ed.). 2008a. Mammals of South America Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L. 2008b. Order Pilosa Flower, 1883. Pp. 157–177 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L. 2008c. Genus Caluromys J. A. Allen, 1900. Pp. 3–11 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L. 2008d. Tribe Stenodermatini P. Gervais, 1856. Pp. 357–363 11 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L. 2008e. Tribe Sturnirini. Pp. 363–376 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L. 2008f. Family Noctilionidae Gray 1821. Pp. 384–389 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L., and M. D’agosto. 2008. Metachirus Burmeister, 1854. Pp. 35–39 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gardner, A. L., and C. O. Handley Jr. 2008. Genus Lasiurus Gray 1831. Pp. 457–468 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Gibb, G.C., F. L. Condamine, M. Kuch, J. Enk, N. Moraes-Barros, M. Superina, H.N. Poinar, and F. Delsuc. 2016. shotgun mitogenomics provides a reference phylogenetic framework and timescale for living xenarthrans. Molecular Biology and Evolution 33:621–642.

Giordano, A. J., and W. B. Ballard. 2010. Noteworthy record of a black howler monkey (Alouatta caraya) from the central dry Chaco of Paraguay. Neotropical Primates 17:74–75.

Giordano, A. J., N. Mujica, F. Ramírez, and C. K. Nielsen. 2014. Jaguar (Panthera onca) records from the south central Paraguayan Chaco: Implications for transboundary surveys at the southern range edge. Cat News 60:38–40.

Gompper, M. E., and D. M. Decker. 1998. Nasua nasua. Mammalian Species 580:1–9.

Gonçalves P. R., P. Teta, and C. Bonvicino C. 2015. Genus Holochilus Brandt, 1835. Pp. 325–335 in Mammals of South America, 2. Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

González–Ittig, R. E., N. Kandel, S. Levis, G. Calderón, J. Salazar–Bravo, and C. N. Gardenal. 2014. Molecular Systematics of the South American rodent Calomys laucha (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae), a reservoir of the Laguna Negra hantavirus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 92:1093–1098.

Goodin, D. G., D. E. Koch, R. D. Owen, Y. K. Chu, J. M. S. Hutchinson, and C. B. Jonsson. 2006. Land cover associated with hantavirus presence in Paraguay. Global Ecology and Biogeography 15:519–527.

Goodin, D. G., R. Paige, R. D. Owen, K. Ghimire, D. E. Koch, Y. K. Chu, and C. B. Jonsson. 2009. Microhabitat characteristics of Akodon montensis, a vector for hantavirus, and hantaviral seroprevalence in an Atlantic Forest site in Eastern Paraguay. Journal of Vector Ecology 34:104–113.

Gorham, J. R. 1973. Paraguay: Ecological Essays. Academy of Arts and Sciences of the Americas. Miami, U. S. A.

Gorresen, P. M., and M. R. Willig. 2004. Landscape responses of bats to habitat fragmentation in Atlantic forest of Paraguay. Journal of Mammalogy 85:688–697.

Gorresen, P. M., M. R. Willig, and R. E. Strauss. 2005. Multivariate analysis of scale–dependent associations between bats and landscape structure. Ecological Applications 15:2126–2136.

Graciolli, G., C. W. Dick, and D. D. Gettinger. 2006. A faunal survey of Nycteribiid flies (Diptera: Nycteridiidae) associated with bats of Paraguay. Zootaxa 1220:35–46.

Griffiths, T. A., and A. L. Gardner. 2008. Glossophaginae. Pp. 224–244 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Groves, C. 2005. Order Primates. Pp.111–184 in Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed. (Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Groves, C. and P. Grubb. 2011. Ungulate Taxonomy. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. Pp. 637–722 in Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed. (Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Handen, C. E., and K. Benirschke. 1991. Giant chacoan peccary: Feeding and social behavior of a captive group in natural habitat. Zoo Biology 10:209–217.

Handen C. E., J. Unger, and D. Meritt. 1994. Current status of the Tagua (Catagonus wagneri) in Paraguay. Zoologishe Garten 64:329–337.

Hayes, F. E. 1995. Status, distribution, and biogeography of the birds of Paraguay. Monographs in Field Ornithology 1:1–230.

Heddergott, M. 2008. Two new species of Parichoronyssus Radovsky, 1966 (Acari, Dermanyssoidea, Macronyssidae) from bats of the Genus Phyllostomus (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) in Paraguay and Cuba. Spixiana 31:183–193.

Hershkovitz, P. 1963. The nomenclature of South American peccaries. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 76:85–87.

Hill, K., and J. Padwe. 2000. Sustainability of Aché hunting in the Mbaracayú Reserve, Paraguay. Pp.79–105 in Hunting for sustainability in tropical forests (Robinson, J. G., and E. I. Bennett, eds.). Columbia University Press. New York, U. S. A.

Hill, K., J. Padwe, C. Bejyvagi, A. Bepurangi, F. Jakugi, R. Tykuarangi, and T. Tykuarangi. 1997. Impact of hunting on large vertebrates in the Mbaracayú Reserve, Paraguay. Conservation Biology 11:1339–1353.

Hill, K., G. McMillan, and R. Fariña. 2003. Hunting-related changes in game encounter rates from 1994 to 2001 in the Mbaracayú reserve, Paraguay. Conservation Biology 17:1312–1323.

Hoyos, M., P. Bloor, T. Defler, J. Vermeer, F. Rohe, and I. Farias. 2016. Phylogenetic relationships within the Callicebus cupreus species group (Pitheciidae: Primates): Biogeographic and taxonomic implications. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 102:208–219.

Hurtado, N., and V. Pacheco. 2014. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Mimon Gray, 1847 (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) with description of a new genus. Therya 5:751–791.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN). 2012. International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, online version http://www.iczn.org.

Jackson, J. E. 1987. Ozotoceros bezoarticus. Mammalian Species 295:1–5.

Johnson, W. E., J. P. Slattery, E. Eizirik, J. H. Kim, M. M. Raymond, C. Bonacic, R. Cambre, P. Crawshaw, A. Nunes, H. N. Seuánez, M. A. M. Moreira, K. L. Seymour, F. Simon, W. Swanson, S. J. O’Brien. 1999. Disparate phylogeographic patterns of molecular genetic variation in four closely related South American small cat species. Molecular Ecology 8:S79–S94.

Kwon, M., and A. L. Gardner. 2008. Desmodontinae. Pp. 218–214 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Larson, S. E. 1997. Taxonomic re–evaluation of the Jaguar. Zoo Biology 16:107–120.

López–González, C. 2004. Ecological zoogeography of the bats of Paraguay. Journal of Biogeography 31:33–45.

López–González, C. 2005. Murciélagos del Paraguay. Biosfera, Publicaciones del Comité Español del Programa MaB y de la Red IberoMaB de la UNESCO. Sevilla, Spain.

López–González, C., and S. J. Presley. 2001. Taxonomic status of Molossus bondae J. A. Allen, 1904 (Chiroptera: Molossidae), with description of a new subspecies. Journal of Mammalogy 82:760–774.

López–González, C., S. J. Presley, R. D. Owen, M. R. Willig, and I. Gamarra de Fox. 1998. Noteworthy records of bats (Chiroptera) from Paraguay. Mastozoología Neotropical 4:5–9.

López–gonzález, C., P. Myers, N. de la Sancha, G. D’Elía, and L. Valdez. 2014. Historia de la mastozoología en Paraguay. Pp. 345–358 in Historia de la Mastozoología en Latinoamérica, las Guayanas y el Caribe (Ortega, J., J. L. Martínez, and D. G. Tirira, eds.). Editorial Murciélago Blanco y Asociación Ecuatoriana de Mastozoología. Quito, Ecuador, and México City, Mexico.

Lynch Alfaro, J. W., J. S. E. Silva, Jr., and A. B. Rylands. 2012a. How different are robust and gracile capuchin monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74:273–286.

Marques–Aguiar, S. A. 2008. Genus Artibeus Leach, 1921. Pp. 301–321 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Martínez, R., E. Torres, M. Nieves, V. Zapkievich, S. Rodriguez, A. Schinini, M. Ascurra, and M. D. Mudry. 2004. Genetic variability in two captive colonies of Cebus apella paraguayanus (Primates: Platyrrhini) from eastern Paraguay. Caryologia 57:332–336.

Martínez–Lanfranco, J. A., D. Flores, J. P. Jayat, and G. D’Elía. 2014. A new species of lutrine opossum, genus Lutreolina Thomas (Didelphidae), from the South American Yungas. Journal of Mammalogy 95:225–240.

Matayoshi, T., Howlin, E., Nasazzi, N., Nagle, C., Gadow, E., and Seuánez, H. N. 1986. Chromosome studies of Cebus apella: the standard karyotype of Cebus apella paraguayanus Fischer, 1829. American Journal of Primatology 10:185–193.

Mayer, J. J., and P. N. Brandt. 1982. Identity, distribution and natural history of the peccaries, Tayassuidae. Pp. 433–456 in Mammalian biology in South America (Mares, M. A., and H. H. Genoways, eds.). Special Publication Series, Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology 6:1–539.

Mayer, J. J., and R. M. Wetzel. 1986. Catagonus wagneri. Mammalian Species 259:1–5.

McCulloch, E., and R. D. Stevens. 2011. Rapid development and screening of microsatellite loci for Artibeus lituratus and their utility for six related species within Phyllostomidae. Molecular Ecology Resources 11:903–913.

McCulloch, E., J. S. Tello, A. Whitehead, C. M. J. Rolón–Mendoza, M. C. D. Maldonado–Rodriguez, and R. D. Stevens. 2013. Fragmentation of Atlantic Forest has not affected gene flow of a widespread seed–dispersing bat. Molecular Ecology 22:4619–4633.

McLellan, L. J., and K. F. Koopman. 2008. Subfamily Carolliinae Miller 1924. Pp. 208–218 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Meritt, D. A. 1973. Some observations on the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus in Paraguay. Zoologica 58:53.

Meritt, D. A. 2010. Use of apple snails (Pomacea canaliculata) by Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri). Der Zoologische Garten 7:175–178.

 Moratelli, R., and D. E. Wilson. 2013. Distribution and natural history of Myotis lavali (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy 94:650–656.

Moratelli, R., L. Idárraga, and D. E. Wilson. 2015. Range extension of Myotis midastactus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) to Paraguay. Biodiversity Data Journal 3:e5708, doi: 10.3897/BDJ.3.e5708.

Mudry, D. E., M. D. Pargament, and I. R. Slavutsky. 1987. Banding Patterns of the Chromosomes of Cebus apella: Comparative studies between specimens from Paraguay and Argentina. Primates 28:111–117.

Mudry, D. E., N. Nives, and A. D. Bolzán. 2007. Chromosomal localization of the telomeric (TTAGGG)n sequence in eight species of New World primates (Neotropical Primates, Platyrrhini). Cytogenetic and Genome Research 119:221–224.

Murray, J. L., and G. L. Gardner. 1997. Leopardus pardalis. Mammalian Species 548:1–10.

Myers, P. 1982. Origins and affinities of the mammal fauna of Paraguay. Pp. 85–93 in Mammalian biology in South America (Mares, M. A., and H. H. Genoways, eds.). Special Publication Series, Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology 6:1–539.

Myers, P., A. Taber, and I. Gamarra de Fox. 2002. Mamíferos de Paraguay. Pp. 453–502 in Diversidad y Conservación de los Mamíferos Neotropicales (Ceballos, G., and J. A. Simonetti, eds.). CONABIO–UNAM. México City, Mexico.

Neris, N. N. 1998. Los mamíferos de Paraguay. Pp. 51–64 in La diversidad biológica de Iberoamérica Vol. III (Halffter, G., ed.). Acta Zoológica Mexicana, Nueva Serie, Volumen especial.

Owen, R. D., P. Smith, C. López–González, and M. Ruiz Díaz. 2014. First records of two species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera: Emballonuridae and Phyllostomidae) from Paraguay. Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay 23:67–73.

Padula P., V. P. Martínez, C. Bellomo, S. Maidana, J. San Juan, P. Tagliaferri, S. Bargardi, C. Vázquez, N. Colucci, J. Estévez, and M. Almiron. 2007. Pathogenic hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13:1211–1214.

Pardiñas, U. F. J., P. Teta, D. Alvarado–Serrano, L. Geise, J. P. Jayat, P. E. Ortiz, P. R. Gonçalves, and G. D’Elía. 2015. Genus Akodon Meyen, 1833. Pp. 144–204 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Pardiñas, U. F. J., P. Teta, J. Salazar–Bravo, P. Myers, and C. A. Galliari. 2016. A new species of arboreal rat, genus Oecomys (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Chaco. Journal of Mammalogy 97:1177–1196.

Pargament, M. M., and I. R. Slavutsky. 1987. Banding patterns of the chromosomes of Cebus apella: Comparative studies between specimens from Paraguay and Argentina. Primates 28:111–117.

Patton, J. L. 2015. Family Cuniculidae G. S. Miller and Gidley, 1918. Pp. 726–733 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía. eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Patton, J. L. and M. N. F. da Silva. 1997. Definition of species of pouched four–eyed opossums (Didelphidae, Philander). Journal of Mammalogy 78:90–102.

Patton, J. L., and M. N. F. da Silva. 2008. Genus Philander Brisson, 1762. Pp. 27–35 in Mammals of South America Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats. (Gardner, A. L., ed.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Patton, J. L., and L. H. Emmons. 2015. Family Dasyproctidae Bonaparte, 1838. Pp. 733–762 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía (eds.). 2015. Mammals of South America. Volume 2, Rodents. The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Percequillo, A. R. 2015. Genus Sooretamys Weksler, Percequillo, and Voss, 2006. Pp. 451–454 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Percequillo, A. R., E. Hingst–Zaher, and C. R. Bonvicino. 2008. Systematic review of genus Cerradomys Weksler, Percequillo and Voss, 2006 (Rodentia: Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae: Oryzomyini), with description of two new species from eastern Brazil. American Museum Novitates 3622:1–46.

Pickles, R. S. A., J. J. Groombridge, V. D. Zambrana Rojas, P. Van Damme, D. Gottelli, S. Kundu, and R. Bodmer. 2011. Evolutionary history and identification of conservation units in the giant otter Pteronura brasiliensis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61:616–27.

Pine, R. H. 1982. Current status of South American Mammalogy. Pp. 27–37 in Mammalian biology in South America (Mares, M. A., and H. H. Genoways, eds.). Special Publication Series, Pymatuning Laboratory of Ecology 6:1–539.

Podtiaguin, B. 1944. Contribuciones al conocimiento de los murciélagos del Paraguay. Revista de la Sociedad Científica del Paraguay 6:25–62.

Presley, S. J. 2000. Eira barbara. Mammalian Species 636:1–6.

Presley, S. J. 2007. Streblid bat fly assemblage structure on Paraguayan Noctilio leporinus (Chiroptera: Noctilionidae): nestedness and species co–occurrence. Journal of Tropical Ecology 23:409–417.

Presley, S. J. 2012. Sex based population structure of ectoparasites from Neotropical bats. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 107:56–66.

Presley, S. J., and M. R. Willig. 2008. Intraspecific patterns of ectoparasite abundances on Paraguayan bats: effects of host sex and body size. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24:75–83.

Presley, S. J., C. L. Higgins, C. López–González, and R. D. Stevens. 2009. Elements of metacommunity structure of Paraguayan bats: multiple gradients require analysis of multiple axes of variation. Oecologia 160:781–793.

Queirolo, D., J. R. Moreira, L. Soler, L. H. Emmons, F. H. Rodrigues, A. A. Pautasso, J. L. Cartes, and V. Salvatori. 2011. Historical and current range of the near threatened maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus in South America. Oryx 45:296–303.

Rumbo, M. 2010. Análisis biogeográfico de los mamíferos de Paraguay. Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay 16:18–29.

Rumiz D. and J. Stallings. 1989. Estado de la primatologia en Paraguay. Boletín de Primatología, 1:37-42.

Rylands, A. B. and R. A. Mittermeier. 2009. Chapter 2: The diversity of the New World primates (Platyrrhini): An annotated taxonomy. Pp. 23–54 in South American Primates, developments in Primatology: progress and prospects. (Garber, P. A., A. Estrada, J.C. Bicca-Marques, E.W. Heymann, and K. B. Strier, eds.). Springer. New York, USA

Rylands, A. B., A. F. Coimbra–Filho, R. A. Mittermeier. 2009. Chapter 2: The systematics and distributions of the marmosets (Callithrix, Callibella, Cebuella, and Mico) and callimico (Callimico) (Callitrichidae, Primates). Pp. 25–61 in The smallest anthropoids, developments in Primatology progress and prospects (Ford, S. M., L. M. Porter, and L. C. Davis, eds.). Springer. New York, U. S. A.

Sainz Ollero, H., F. Suárez Cardons, and M. Vázquez de Castro Ontañón. 1989. José Sánchez Labrador y los naturalistas jesuitas del Río de la Plata. Ministerio de obras públicas y urbanismo. Ávila, España.

Salazar–Bravo, J. 2015. Genus Calomys Waterhouse, 1837. Pp. 481–507 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Simmons, N. B. 2005. Chiroptera. Pp. 159–174 in The rise of placental mammals: Origins of the major clades of placental mammals (Rose, K. D., and J. D. Archibald, eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Smith, P. 2012. Assessing the assessment, the relevance of the 2006 Paraguayan mammal Red List to the reality of Xenarthra conservation in 2012. Edentata 13:18–28.

Smith, P., and R. D. Owen. 2015. The subgenus Micoureus (Didelphidae: Marmosa) in Paraguay: morphometrics, distributions, and habitat associations. Mammalia 79:463–471.

Smith, P. R. D. Owen, K. Atkinson, H. del Castillo, E. Northcote–Smith. 2011. First records of the southern naked–tailed Armadillo Cabassous unicinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Xenarthra: Dasypodidae) in Paraguay. Edentata 12:53–57.

Smith, P., H. Pheasey, K. Atkinson, J. Ramakers, and J. Sarvary. 2012. The Didelphimorphia (Didelphidae) of Reserva Natural Laguna Blanca, Departamento San Pedro, Paraguay. Acta Zoológica Lilloana 151:141–153.

Smith, P., R. D. Owen, H. del Castillo, M. Ortiz, and A. Cabrera. 2013a. Historical and recent records of greater grison Galictis vittata in Paraguay, with nomenclatural comments. Small Carnivore Conservation 49:43–47.

Solari, S. 2010. A molecular perspective on the diversification of short–tailed opossums (Monodelphis: Didelphidae). Mastozoología Neotropical 17:317–333.

Spotorno, A. E., and J. L. Patton. 2015. Superfamily Chinchilloidea Bennett, 1833. Pp. 762–783 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Stallings, J. R. 1984. Notes on the feeding habits of Mazama gouazoubira in the Chaco Boreal of Paraguay. Biotropica 16:155–157.

Stallings, J. R. 1985. Distribution and status of primates in Paraguay. Primate Conservation 6:51–58.

Stallings, J. R. 1986. Notes on the reproductive biology of the grey brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) in Paraguay. Journal of Mammalogy 67:172–175.

Stallings, J. R., and R. A. Mittermeier. 1983. The black–tailed marmoset (Callithrix argentata melanura) recorded from Paraguay. American Journal of Primatology 4:150–163.

Stein B. R, and J. L. Patton. 2008. Genus Chironectes Illiger, 1811. Pp. 14–17 in Mammals of South American Volume 1: Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Stevens, R. D. 2001. Twinning in the big fruit–eating bat Artibeus lituratus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from eastern Paraguay. Mammalian Biology 66:178–180.

Stevens, R. D., and H. N. Amarilla–Stevens. 2012. Seasonal environments, episodic density compensation and dynamics of structure of chiropteran frugivore guilds in Paraguayan Atlantic forest. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:267–279.

Stevens, R. D., M. R. Willig, and I. Gamarra de Fox. 2004. Comparative community ecology of bats from eastern Paraguay: taxonomic, ecological, and biogeographic perspectives. Journal of Mammalogy 85:698–707.

Stevens, R. D., C. López–González, and S. J. Presley. 2007. Geographical ecology of Paraguayan bats: spatial integration and metacommunity structure of interacting assemblages. Journal of Animal Ecology 76:1086–1093.

Stevens, R. D., C. López–González, E. S. MCCulloch, F. Netto, and M. L. Ortiz. 2010. Myotis levis (Geoffroy Saint–Hilaire) indeed occurs in Paraguay. Mastozoología Neotropical 17:195–200.

Stevens, R. D., M. E. Johnson, and E. S. MCCulloch. 2016. Geographic variation of wing morphology of great fruit-eating bats (Artibeus lituratus): environmental, genetic and spatial correlates of phenotypic differences. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 118:734–744.

Sutherland–Smith, M., J. M. Campos, C. Cramer, C. Thorstadt, W. Toone, and P. J. Morris. 2004. Immobilization of Chacoan peccaries (Catagonus wagneri) using medetomidine, telazol, and ketamine. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 40:731–736.

Taber, A. B. 1990. El taguá, un plan de acción para su conservación en el Paraguay. Editora Litocolor. Asunción, Paraguay.

Taber, A. B. 1991. The status and conservation of the Chacoan peccary in Paraguay. Oryx 25:147–155.

Taber, A. B. 1993. 2.4 The chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri). Pp. 22–29 in Pigs, peccaries and hippos, status, survey, and conservation action plans (Oliver, W. L. R., ed.). IUCN. Gland, Switzerland.

Taber, A. B., C. P. Doncaster, N. N. Neris, and F. H. Colman. 1993. Ranging behavior and population dynamics of the Chacoan peccary, Catagonus wagneri. Journal of Mammalogy 74:43–454.

Taber, A. B., C. P. Doncaster, N. N. Neris, and F. H. Colman. 1994. Ranging behaviour and activity patterns of two sympatric peccaries, Catagonus wagneri and Tayassu tajacu, in the Paraguayan Chaco. Mammalia 58:61–72.

Taber, A. B., A. J. Novaro, N. N. Neris, and F. H. Colman. 1997. The food habits of sympatric jaguar and puma in the Paraguayan Chaco. Biotropica 29:204–213.

Teta, P., G. D’Elía, D. Flores, and N. U. de la Sancha. 2009. Diversity and distribution of the mouse opossums of the genus Thylamys (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) in northeastern and central Argentina. Gayana 73:180–199.

Teta, P., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía. 2015. Genus Thaptomys Thomas, 1916. Pp. 277–279 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Timm, R. M., J. L. Cartes, M. Ruíz–Díaz, R. Zárate, and R. H. Pine. 2015. Distribution and ecology of squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae) in Paraguay, with first country records for Sciurus ignitus. The Southwestern Naturalist 60:121–127.

Toone, W., and M. Wallace. 2002. The Giant Chacoan Peccary: an outstanding example of adaptation to a subtropical dryland ecosystem. Biodiversity 3:28–31.

Toone, W., J. Campos, and M. Wallace. 2003. Release of radio–collared giant Chacoan peccary in Paraguay. Re–introduction News 22:34–36.

Torres, J. C., P. Teta, and N. U. de la Sancha. 2014. Presas del búho campestre (Asio flammeus) en un agroecosistema subtropical de Paraguay. Nuestras Aves 59:24-27.

Trigo, T. C., T. R. Freitas, G. Kunzler, L. Cardoso, J. C. Silva, W. E. Johnson, S. J. O’Brien, S. L. Bonatto, and E. Eizirik. 2008. Inter–species hybridization among Neotropical cats of the genus Leopardus, and evidence for an introgressive hybrid zone between L. geoffroyi and L. tigrinus in southern Brazil. Molecular Ecology 17:4317-4333.

Trigo, T. C., A. Schneider, T. G. de Oliveira, L. M. Lehugeur, L. Silveira, T. R. O. Freitas, and E. Eizirik. 2013. Molecular data reveal complex hybridization and a cryptic species of Neotropical wild cat. Current Biology 23:1–6.

Velazco, P. M., and B. D. Patterson. 2013. Diversification of the yellow–shouldered bats, genus Sturnira (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae), in the New World tropics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68:683–698.

Velázquez, M. C., and F. Ramírez Pinto. 2014 (2015). Guía de los mamíferos de la Reserva Natural Tapytá. Fundación Moisés Bertoni. Asunción, Paraguay.

Villalba, L., and C. Bonacic. 2006. Rediscovery of the Guanaco in the Paraguayan Chaco. The Camelid Quarterly March:1–2.

Vislobokova, I. A. 2013. On the Origin of Cetartiodactyla: Comparison of data on evolutionary morphology and molecular biology. Paleontological Journal 47:321–334.

Voss, R. S. 2015. Family Erethizontidae Bonaparte, 1845. Pp. 786–804 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Voss, R. S. and S. A. Jansa. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships and classification of didelphid marsupials, an extant radiation of New World metatherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 322:1–177.

Voss, R. S., D. P. Lunde, and S. A. Jansa. 2005. On the contents of Gracilinanus Gardner and Creighton, 1989, with the description of a previously unrecognized clade of small didelphid marsupials. American Museum Novitates 3482:1–36.

Voss, R. S., P. Myers, F. Catzeflis, A. Carmignotto, and J. Barreiro. 2009. The six opossums of Félix de Azara: identification, taxonomic history, neotype designations, and nomenclatural recommendations. Pp. 406–433 in Systematic Mammalogy: Contributions in honor of Guy G. Musser (Voss, R. S, and M. D. Carleton, eds.). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 331:406–433.

Weiler, A., and K. Núñez. 2012. Desafíos para la conservación del tatú carreta (Priodontes maximus) en el Chaco Paraguayo. Reportes Científicos de la FACEN 3:5–13.

Weksler, M., and C. R. Bonvicino. 2005. Taxonomy of pigmy rice rats (genus Oligoryzomys, Rodentia: Sigmodontinae) of the Brazilian Cerrado, with the description of two new species. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro 63:113–130.

Weksler, M., and C. R. Bonvicino. 2015. Genus Oligoryzomys Bangs, 1900. Pp. 417–438 in Mammals of South America, Volume 2, Rodents (Patton, J. L., U. F. J. Pardiñas, and G. D’Elía, eds.). The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, U. S. A.

Weksler, M., A. R. Percequillo, and R. S. Voss. 2006. Ten new genera of Oryzomyine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae). American Museum Novitates 3537:1–28.

Wetzel, R. M. 1980. Revision of the naked–tailed armadillo, genus Cabassous McMurtrie. Annals of Carnegie Museum 49:323–357.

Wetzel, R. M. 1985. Taxonomy and distribution of armadillos, Dasypodidae. Pp. 23–48 in The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas (Montgomery, G. G., ed.). Smithsonian Institution Press. Washington D.C., U. S. A.

Wetzel, R. M., R. E. Dubos, R. L. Martin, and P. Myers. 1975. Catagonus, an “extinct” peccary alive in Paraguay. Science 189:379–381.

Wetzel, R. M., A. L. Gardner, K. H. Redford, and J. F. Eisenberg. 2008. Family Dasypodidae Gray, 1821. Pp. 157–177 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L. ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Williams, S. L., and H. H. Genoways. 2008. Subfamily Phyllostominae Gray, 1825. Pp. 255–300 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago U. S. A.

Willig, M. R., S. J. Presley, R. D. Owen, and C. López–González. 2000. Composition and structure of bat assemblages in Paraguay: A subtropical–temperate interface. Journal of Mammalogy 81:386–401.

Wilson, D. E. 2008. Genus Myotis Kaup, 1829. Pp. 468–481 in Mammals of South America Volume 1, Marsupials, xenarthans, shrews and bats (Gardner, A. L., ed.). The University of Chicago Press. Chicago, U. S. A.

Wilson, D. E. and D. M. Reeder. 2005. Mammal Species of the World, a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Wozencraft, W. C. 2005. Order Carnivora. Pp. 532–628 in Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd edition (Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press. Baltimore, U. S. A.

Yahnke, C. J., J. Unger, B. Lohr, D. A. Meritt, and W. Heuschele. 1997. Age specific fecundity, litter size, and sex ratio in the Chacoan peccary (Catagonus wagneri). Zoo Biology 1:301–307.

Yahnke, C. J., P. L. Meserve, T. G. Ksiazek, and J. N. Mills. 2001. Patterns of infection with Laguna Negra virus in wild populations of Calomys laucha in the central Paraguayan Chaco. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 65:768–776.

Zuercher, G. L., and F. R. D. Villalba. 2002. Records of Speothos venaticus Lund, 1842 (Carnivora, Canidae) in eastern Paraguay. Mammalian Biology 67:185–187.

Zuercher, G. L., P. S. Gipson, and K. Hill. 2001. A predator–habitat assessment for felids in the inland Atlantic Forest of Eastern Paraguay: a preliminary analysis. Endangered Species Update 18:115–119.

Zuercher G. L., P. S. Gipson, and G. C. Stewart. 2003. Identification of carnivore feces by local peoples and molecular analyses. Wildlife Society Bulletin 31:961–970.

Zuercher G. L., P. S. Gipson, and O. Carrillo. 2005. Diet and habitat associations of bush dogs Speothos venaticus in the Interior Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraguay. Oryx 39:86– 89.


Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


FACTOR DE IMPACTO 2019 (SCOPUS): 1.1


THERYA es publicada por la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Se distribuye bajo una Licencia de Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.

DERECHOS DE AUTOR Y DERECHOS CONEXOS, THERYA es una publicación digital cuatrimestral editada por la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Hacienda Vista Hermosa 107, Colonia Villa Quietud, Coyoacan 04960.  Distrito Federal, México.  Telefono (612) 123-8486, www.mastozoologiamexicana.org.  Editor responsable: Dr. Sergio Ticul Álvarez Castañeda (therya@cibnor.mx).  Reservas de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo No. 04-2009-112812171700-102, ISSN: 2007-3364 ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor.  Responsable de la última actualización de este número, Unidad de informática de la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Dr. Sergio Ticul Álvarez Castañeda.  Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195.  La Paz, Baja California Sur, C. P. 23096.  Tel 612 123 8486.